Judiciary System in India refers to the system of courts in India.Judiciary System in India came into existence with our constitution in 1950. Being such a big country as well as one of the highly populated country there was a need for a system to enforce law & Order. This is why the judiciary evolved in India.
Indian Judiciary follows a hierarchy of courts. We have four types of Courts in India.
1. Supreme Court
2. High Court
3. District Court
4. Lok Adalat
Let’s understand their scope of work.
- Supreme Court: Supreme Court lies at the top of the Hierarchy. This is the last court to appeal. The Chief Justice(CJI) of India including 30 judges and other judges are in the proceedings in the court. Supreme court is considered as the Guadian of the constitution of India. It takes petitions about unsolved, pending, disputed cases where serious human rights violations are involved. The Supreme Court in India is located in our capital New Delhi.
To become the Chief Justice at Supreme Court, A person should be:
- An Indian Citizen.
- The judge in one High court or more, for at least 5 years or advocate in the high court for at least 10 years.
- A distinguished judge in the opinion of the President of India.
2. High Court: According to our Constitution, Each state must have a High Court. These high courts have jurisdiction over a state, a union territory or a group of states and union territories. Each high court has 94 Judges in which 71 are the permanent judge. High court deals with economic issues and legal documentation & maintain law and order in their respective state.
Eligibility criteria to be a Judge in high court:
- should be a citizen of India.
- Must have practiced as a lawyer in any court for more than 10 years
3. District Courts: At the bottom of the hierarchy, District Courts works as the subordinate to their High Courts. These courts are established as per the population distribution in the district or state. These courts look after the Civil and criminal matters of their respected district.
Eligibility criteria to be a Judge in District Court:
- Should be a citizen of India.
- Must have practiced as a lawyer in any court for a minimum of 7 years.
4. Lok Adalat: Besides these, we have Lok Adalat who resolves issues between two gatherings. These are formed by any of the following committees:
- High Court Legal Service Committee
- Region Legal Service Committee
- Taluk Legal Service Committee
Each court contributes as a caretaker of our constitution.
All the Best.